Led by president Crawford Del Prete, IDC's veteran management team guides a group of 2,000 global employees, including more than 1,100 of the industry's most knowledgeable and forward-thinking analyst experts. Under its dynamic leadership, IDC has become the premier global provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.
Crawford Del Prete
Crawford Del Prete was appointed President of IDC in February 2019. Prior to his current role, he served as IDC’s Chief Operating Officer. Through his leadership, IDC has established a leading position as the world's most prominent and trusted technology market intelligence provider.
Crawford joined IDC in 1989 as a research analyst. Throughout his IDC career, he has grown multiple IDC businesses to industry leadership positions. He was instrumental in creating IDC’s high visibility research and data tracking products which are used daily in the IT industry for strategic planning.
Crawford is a leading authority on the IT industry and has completed extensive research on the structure and evolution of the information technology industry. He advises technology and business leaders on how to adapt and change in a time when technology is changing the world. He is frequently quoted in publications such as The Wall Street Journal, The Financial Times, The New York Times and other leading media sources. He is a regular guest on Bloomberg Technology TV, offering insight and perspective on daily technology events.
He was awarded The Patrick J. McGovern Award for Management Excellence in 2014. In 1995, he was awarded IDC's James Peacock Award for research excellence, IDC's highest research honor.
He holds a B.A. from Michigan State University and in 2012, he was named a Distinguished Alumni of the University.
Managing Director, IDC Asia/Pacific
Eva Au is the Managing Director of IDC Asia/Pacific, with over 20 years of international expertise in sales, marketing, business development and general management across North America and Asia. In her current leadership role, Eva oversees business operations across 14 countries in the APeJ region, managing core functional areas such as Research, Consulting, Events, Sales, Marketing, & Finance.
Since joining IDC, Eva has further entrenched IDC's thought leadership position in the industry, spearheading the development of strategic research themes and go-to-market solutions for a comprehensive perspective of the diverse IT market.
Eva was instrumental in launching IDC's Emerging Technology Advisory Service, an incubator program to identify new ICT areas of interest. Eva's focus on evolving research, outstanding customer service and satisfaction, and deeper geographic insights through leveraging synergies has seen the expansion of IDC's end-user research and advisory influence in Asia/Pacific, as well as stronger growth and capability in custom research by industry. Her direction has fast-tracked the growth of regional and country-level research and insights about Asia/Pacific’s readiness, maturity and adoption of 3rd Platform technologies to propel digital transformation (DX) within organizations.
Prior to joining IDC, Eva was Managing Director of LexisNexi's Asia, a global legal and information publishing house in Canada and Asia. Under her leadership, business development, customer loyalty, corporate branding, global account management, and product customization initiatives catapulted LexisNexi’s as the premier content provider in its key markets. Eva was awarded LexisNexi's "Passion for Winning" and "Circle of Excellence" awards seven times in total in recognition of her outstanding contributions, strong enthusiasm and commitment to her work.
Chief Human Resources Officer
Ms. Bernardi leads IDC’s Human Resources function worldwide and is an active part of IDC's senior management team. Through strategic leadership, Ms. Bernardi drives the planning and implementation of quality-based, integrated human resources programs throughout the US and international workforce. Her mission is to take care of IDC’s most valuable resource, the “People”.
Ms. Bernardi's recent focus has been on delivering a high quality and unique IDC employee experience, including building a robust online presence through branding initiatives, the recruitment of top talent, programs and initiatives that highlight IDC’s unique global culture, women and diversity initiatives, the IDC Mentoring and Wellness Programs, as well as the IDC employee led IDC Cares Committee dedicated to giving back both locally and globally. She leads her innovative HR team to hire, assimilate, develop and grow an organization of long tenured, creative, entrepreneurial employees. IDC boasts a high percentage of “boomerang” employees who return to IDC while maintaining lower than industry turnover rates. Ms. Bernardi creates strategy and initiatives to drive worldwide change, such as selection and adoption of IDC’s WW database, ATS tool and Engagement Survey vendor. She is responsible for IDC’s Affirmative Action Plan and compliance issues.
Ms. Bernardi joined IDG in 1989 and was responsible for creating the first collaborative training program for all IDG business units. Shortly after, she began work in the Human Resources Service Division (HRSD), providing HR generalist services to a variety of smaller IDG business units, including IDC. In September 1991, Ms. Bernardi was hired as an HR Manager at IDC. At that time, IDC employed only 85 people. IDC now boasts a U.S. workforce of 500+ US employees and 1,200 international employees. Ms. Bernardi was promoted to Vice President of Human Resources & Education in 1998, and again to IDC’s Chief Human Resources Officer in 2016.
Before joining IDC, Ms. Bernardi worked in recruiting and training at Massachusetts General Hospital as well as York Hospital in Maine. Ms. Bernardi earned a Bachelor's degree from the University of New Hampshire and a Master's degree from Lesley University. She is also a graduate of the American Society of Training and Development's Train the Trainer program. She is certified in Myers Briggs Type Indicator, the Results System, Motivation Factor as well as a graduate of the Center of Creative Leaderships 360 feedback tools.
Senior Vice President, Enterprise Infrastructure, Cloud, Developers and Alliances
Matt Eastwood is Senior Vice President of IDC’s enterprise infrastructure, infrastructure software, infrastructure services, cloud, developer and alliances research groups. His responsibilities include managing a team of analysts researching people, process and technology trends affecting enterprise computing, storage, networking, systems infrastructure software, infrastructure services, cloud, edge infrastructure, datacenter, developers, channels and alliances. He also draws upon his experience as an environmental engineer as a participant in IDC's Corporate and Social Responsibility and Technology for Social Good research initiative. Mr. Eastwood also leads IDC's BuyerView syndicated primary research focused on emerging trends in cloud, developers, service providers, AI and Security.
Prior to joining IDC in 2000, Mr. Eastwood worked for more than a decade as an environmental engineer and operations manager at CDM Smith in Boston.
Education & Industry Achievements
Senior Vice President, IDC EMEA & Managing Director, CEMA Region
Steven Frantzen is a long-time specialist on the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry and markets of Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA). As Senior Vice President for Research and Consulting, Mr. Frantzen oversees the planning and execution of IDC's standard research programs and consulting for 75 countries spanning Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe and the Middle East and Africa.
Mr. Frantzen is also responsible for managing IDC’s business units in Central and Eastern Europe, and Middle East and Africa (CEMA), overseeing the planning, development, implementation, and coordination of the full range of IDC's operations and activities across 21 IDC offices located throughout these regions.
Mr. Frantzen joined IDC in 1990 as the company’s first dedicated employee for the region of Central and Eastern Europe, overseeing office, business and product development ranging from new standard research and data services, covering the range of ICT technologies, to custom research and consulting engagements and the establishment of marketing services such as events. He received subsequent responsibility for the Middle East and Africa region in 1999, followed up by Western Europe in 2005.
Frantzen's experience in the ICT field reflects a combination of study, travel, and work activities. He holds undergraduate degrees in Political Science, History and German from the University of Iowa, which included several years of study abroad in Germany (Universities of Trier and Bonn) and Hungary. He also attended the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in Boston, Massachusetts for a Masters degree, where his studies focused on international business and trade and Soviet and Eastern European studies. He is fluent in German and proficient in Russian and Czech.
Mr. Frantzen was awarded IDG’s Chairman’s Cup for Overall Management Excellence in 2013.
Senior Vice President, Research
As Senior Vice President, John Gantz has responsibility for all IDC's worldwide demand-side research, global market models, and portal products. Prior to this role, he was in charge of worldwide research and consulting in personal systems, consumer devices, workgroup and collaborative computing, and services. He is also a member of IDC's management committee, chief architect of IDC's Global Internet Commerce Market Model, and one of IDC's chief spokespersons on broad technology and market issues. He cofounded IDC's annual Internet Executive Forum, founded IDC's PC Market Outlook conferences, and is a regular speaker at IDC's annual Directions conferences in the United States and around the world.
Prior to joining IDC in September 1992, Mr. Gantz was Vice President and Chief Analyst for Dataquest and Director of its Software Research Group. Before joining Dataquest in 1991, Mr. Gantz was executive Vice President of TFS, Inc., a custom research and consulting company that he cofounded in 1983. Before TFS, Mr. Gantz was a Vice President at IDC, where he managed newsletter operations and research programs in software and office automation.
Mr. Gantz is well known in the industry through his frequent speaking and consulting engagements and his bylined biweekly column in Computerworld. In the past he has served as contributing editor for Networking Management, Computer Graphics World, InfoWorld, and Digital News. He has also published articles in Fortune, Forbes, Industry Week, Discover, High Technology, and Management Technology. Additional national and international exposure has come through quotes in all major business publications, interviews on CNN, and chairperson assignments at all major computer industry trade shows, including COMDEX, Internet Commerce Expo, ComNet, ITAA, NCGA, and PC Expo.
Mr. Gantz is a graduate of Dartmouth College, former Navy submarine officer, and coauthor of The Naked Computer (Morrow, 1983). He has run two Boston Marathons (1979 and 1980) and hiked the Appalachian Trail end to end (1973). He is married and has two sons.
Chief Analyst Emeritus
For over 20 years Frank Gens was IDC’s chief thought leader, developing accurate and compelling predictions about the IT marketplace, presented annually in IDC FutureScape reports and at IDC’s Directions conferences. These narratives - about the rise of the Internet; tech’s disruptive shift to “3rd Platform” technologies (like cloud and AI); the advancing digitization of the global economy; digital platforms and ecosystems emerging as the competitive front line in every industry; and the transformation of every enterprise into a “digital innovation factory” – were consistently ahead of the market’s conventional wisdom and continue to power IDC’s market forecasts and shape clients’ digital strategies.
From 2008 to 2020, Mr. Gens also led IDC's global cloud research team, driving the development of IDC's widely used cloud services taxonomy, and the industry's first and most accurate forecast of cloud services adoption. IDC’s cloud coverage grew from three analysts and one research program in 2008 to now hundreds of analysts worldwide, providing the industry’s most detailed cloud research through over 40 in-depth programs.
Mr. Gens retired from IDC in 2020, after a 40-year career in the tech research and advisory services industry. He spent over 30 years at IDC in a variety of additional senior roles, including leading IDC's end-user advisory services and launching and leading IDC's global Internet research. Prior to IDC, Mr. Gens held management positions at International Data Group (IDG), AMR Research (now Gartner) and The Yankee Group (now S&P Global). He holds a B.A. in Earth & Planetary Sciences from Johns Hopkins University and an M.S. in Marine Sciences from University of the Pacific.
Managing Director, IDC Canada
Lars Goransson is responsible for IDC's Canadian operation as Managing Director. IDC Canada's product and services offerings provide the Canadian IT community with market intelligence and market based research across the value continuum of budgeting & planning, marketing awareness and lead generation, and measurement and performance management.
Prior to his role as Managing Director, Lars has held a number of senior analyst and management roles since joining IDC in 1996, most recently as General Manager & Group VP. Previously, Lars managed IDC Canada’s Custom Solutions Group providing proprietary advisory services to Canadian clients. Lars started his career with IDC in the IT outsourcing space and successfully built a very a large IT Services Research Group in Canada.
Mr. Goransson is a graduate of the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. Lars is a board member at the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC). He is also a board member at the Canadian Channel Chiefs Council (C4) and chairs the Research Committee. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and a member of the Canadian Association of Management Consultants (CAMC).
Senior Vice President, Worldwide Custom Solutions
As senior vice president of custom solutions, Scott McLarnon leads the IDC global business unit providing clients with custom marketing and market intelligence solutions. His team provides custom analytics, buyer behavior, partnering, content marketing, interactive tools, thought leadership and sales enablement programs. Mr. McLarnon has extensive experience working with clients to design and apply market intelligence to inform strategic planning, guide decisions, manage operations and improve performance. His projects have influenced industry evolution and shaped client decisions on strategic direction; product design; marketing campaigns, positioning and messaging; partnering programs and global expansion.
Mr. McLarnon was instrumental in developing and building IDC's custom research and consulting business. An experienced market researcher, he has employed both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to study the IT industry.
Prior to IDC, Mr. McLarnon was a senior consultant with a leading strategy and management consulting firm. He previously held research, market analysis, planning and product marketing roles at industry-leading vendors.
MBA graduate from Boston University's Graduate School of Management with a B.S. degree in business administration from Northeastern University
Senior Vice President
Bob Parker is a Senior Vice President responsible for several areas of research at IDC. Bob leads the global industry research teams which includes coverage of healthcare, government, retail, energy, manufacturing, and financial services as well as a cross industry group looking at emerging topics such as blockchain and robotics. Additionally, Bob leads our teams in the enterprise applications space, services, and the IDC coverage of data intelligence which includes coverage of artificial intelligence.
Bob has been conducting industry research for over twenty years including five years at AMR Research before joining IDC. Prior to entering the research field, Bob spent over fifteen years in various Information Technology and Operational management roles in the manufacturing industry including serving as the Chief Information Officer at Eastern Technologies, a defense contractor.
Bob received his MBA with a certification in artificial intelligence from New Hampshire College (now Southern New Hampshire University) and a B.S. from Rivier University with a dual major in finance and computer science.
Bob speaks at numerous industry conferences and is often quoted in the technology, industry, and business press.
Follow Bob on Twitter @RobertEParker.
Worldwide Tracker Research and Corporate Development
Eric Prothero is responsible for managing IDC's largest research practice which includes the IDC Trackers. He also leads IDC’s Corporate Development function.
As Senior Vice President for Worldwide Tracker Research, Mr. Prothero is responsible for managing IDC's largest research practice which includes Tracker and QView products. Across the globe, IDC has over 250 semiannual, quarterly, and monthly tracker products across mobility & consumer devices, datacenter & enterprise infrastructure, cloud, services & solutions, and other areas. His specific responsibilities include overseeing tracker data quality and consistency, taxonomy evolution, global tracker analyst direction, tracker tools and data platforms, the efficiency of the research tracker processes, and client satisfaction.
In his capacity leading IDC’s Corporate Development activities, Eric works with Crawford and the Sr. Management team on executing IDC’s strategy for growth, building strategic alliances, and working with outside parties to identify and evaluate potential IDC acquisition targets.
Prior to his current responsibilities, Eric led the Latin America business unit for IDC, overseeing business operations across 7 countries in the region, managing functional areas including Research, Consulting, Conferences, Sales, Marketing, and Finance. He joined IDC in 1993 as the second employee in the Latin America region. Under his leadership the Latin America region grew to over 120 employees with research coverage in 15 countries in the region.
Prior to IDC, Eric was a senior consultant at Windermere Associates, a San Francisco-based strategic planning consulting firm. Mr. Prothero received his M.B.A. in Finance from the University of California at Berkeley and his B.A. in Economics from Swarthmore College. He speaks Portuguese and Spanish and a bit of Japanese.
Senior Vice President, Datasphere, Consumer, Enabling Technologies and Customer Experience
Dave Reinsel is senior vice president for several IDC research areas, including: mobility, security, consumer, semiconductors, telecommunications, client computing, and imaging/print/document solutions. Mr. Reinsel and his team of over 50 analysts provide timely and industry-leading insight and analysis for IT professionals, investors, resellers, distributors, and manufacturers worldwide. In addition to delivering annual and quarterly forecasts and analyses on today’s mainstream technologies, his research teams are responsible for delivering research and insight around next generation technologies such as augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), 3D printing, next generation security, and robotics.
Mr. Reinsel joined IDC in 2000 to lead IDC’s hard disk drive research. Today, Mr. Reinsel provides custom research and consulting for IDC clients on industry trends, product requirements, and marketing strategies and maintains detailed models and research related to high profile research like the Digital Universe and Where in the World is Storage. In 2006, Mr. Reinsel was a recipient of IDC's most prestigious research award for his professional excellence in market research.
Mr. Reinsel’s more than 23 years of experience within the IT industry and broad responsibilities allow him to monitor and portend technology intersections and opportunities as Digital Transformation ensues across the globe, throughout businesses, and within our individual lives, giving him ample opportunities to speak at conferences worldwide. You can follow Dave on Twitter @DavesBytes.
Mr. Reinsel holds a B.A. in education concentrated in the field of mathematics from the University of Missouri, Kansas City.
Chief Financial Officer
As Chief Financial Officer, Mark Sullivan is responsible for IDC’s worldwide financial reporting, analysis, and planning. He is a member of IDC’s senior management committee.
Mr. Sullivan joined IDC in 1992 as director of finance. He was named vice president, finance in 1998, and CFO in 1999.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. Sullivan served as controller from 1988 –1992 for CW Publishing, publisher of Computerworld. He joined International Data Group in 1987 as a financial analyst.
Prior to his IDG tenure, he held various financial analyst positions at General Electric Company manufacturing operations in Michigan, Ohio, and Massachusetts. He completed, with honors, General Electric’s Financial Management Program.
Mr. Sullivan earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in finance from Michigan State University.
Managing Director, IDC Japan
Masato Takeuchi is the Managing Director for IDC Japan. Mr. Takeuchi joined IDC as Managing Director in 2000 and oversees key business operations and functional areas such as Research, Consulting, Sales, Marketing & Finance for IDC Japan. Mr. Takeuchi is also a member of the executive committee where he is involved in strategic planning for IDC.
Mr. Takeuchi has more than 30 years of experience in sales, marketing, training, and consulting in the information and communications technology industry and nearly 20 years in management roles including developing research businesses and studying management intelligence at IDC. Mr. Takeuchi also published a book entitled, “A Theory of Market Intelligence” in 2015.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. Takeuchi was a board member, General Manager of Sales and Marketing at VeriSign Japan. In his role, he was involved in the creation and implementation of the authentication business and strove to establish a direct sales framework. Mr. Takeuchi also spoke at events and conferences to educate markets about the application of newly developed authentication technologies to business.
Prior to join VeriSign, Mr. Takeuchi served in various capacities at Digital Equipment Corporation Japan (now Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Japan). Subsequently, he founded the consulting business as Consulting Business Unit Manager and grew the communications business as the Telecom Sales Manager, where he made significant inroads in NTT-related business.
Mr. Takeuchi holds B.A. degree from Waseda University and M.B.A. for Social Design from Rikkyo University in Japan.
He was also awarded IDG’s 2010 Chairman’s Cup for Overall Management Excellence.
Chief Sales Officer
As Chief Sales Officer, Brad Thorpe has responsibility for leading all IDC direct sales and customer service to the ICT Vendor, Financial, and End User communities, as well as indirect sales including partnerships. He is IDC's chief customer advocate.
Prior to joining IDC in 1986 Mr. Thorpe was employed at NCR Corporation in both Commercial and Federal Accounts Sales, and before that he held sales positions with Western Microtechnology, a distributor of semiconductors, computer systems, and peripherals.
Mr. Thorpe's first role in 1986 at IDC was as a Unix research analyst and product champion. He then moved into sales, first in California where he was responsible for Western regional and major accounts sales. He was promoted to Director of Major Accounts and relocated to the East Coast to develop IDC's first major account focus, building and implementing its now renowned global account management program. In the NYC area, he led the selling effort for IDC's entry into providing its technology research to equity analysts and investment bankers following technology companies through its successful Investment Research Services.
Most recently, Mr. Thorpe was Group Vice President and General Manager of Enterprise Major, Financial, and Sector Sales, leading sales to IDC's largest ICT vendor clients, the financial community, and emerging ICT vendors and supply chain.
In addition to earning a BA in English from Kenyon College, Mr. Thorpe has participated in numerous sales, sales management, and negotiation courses, including the Sales Management and Global Account Management programs at the Columbia University Business School.
Group Vice President, Worldwide Research
As Group Vice President, Worldwide Research, Rick Villars guides IDC's research into broad ICT industry trends, particularly the strategic adoption of technology by Global 2000 businesses and the industries in which they compete. He is a member of IDC's worldwide management team, as the leader of IDC's Future of Digital Infrastructure research practice.
Mr. Villars leads IDC's global cloud research team, driving the ongoing development of IDC's widely-used cloud services forecasts and the tracking of cloud services adoption. He also leads the development of IDC's annual Worldwide FutureScapes themes and predictions that focuses on the transformation of the IT industry (and other industries) in this time of accelerated innovation.
Over the past decade, he has been a keynote speaker at IDC's annual Directions conferences in the U.S. and in many other countries as well as at CIO and Partner Summits and other major industry events. He also regularly interacts with buy-side, sell-side and private equity financial analysts to discuss the implications of emerging ICT trends on leading ICT companies.
Prior to taking on this role, Mr. Villars has spent over 30 years assessing the evolution of network, storage, and server infrastructure as well as advising companies on the impact of the cloud on existing IT practices. The role included developing IDC's viewpoints on the workloads driving the adoption of converged and software defined IT solutions as well as public and private cloud solutions. He also led IDC's ongoing assessment of the evolution of datacenter design, placement, and management strategies. And advised clients on the impact of new IT consumption models and technologies on organizations' infrastructure, deployment, procurement, and management practices.
Mr.Villars holds a Bachelor's of Science in Foreign Service (B.S.F.S.) from Georgetown University with a concentration in science, technology, and international affairs.
Group VP, Latin America
Ricardo Villate is responsible for the management and direction of IDC's business across the Latin America region.
Mr. Villate has more than 20 years of experience in the IT and financial industries in Latin America. During his tenure at IDC, he has held various positions within the organization. Prior to becoming Group Vice President for Latin America, he was the Vice President for all Research and Consulting in the region and, prior to that, General Manager, Southern Cone (Argentina, Chile, Peru). Before that, Ricardo held several regional management positions. He started his career at IDC Latin America as a senior analyst in the enterprise IT industry. His knowledge comes through his years as an IT market consultant combined with his background in the financial services industry.
Mr. Villate spends much of his time traveling throughout Latin America presenting at industry and vendor events on digital transformation, 3rd Platform innovation and the evolution of ICT, marketing in the IT industry, Latin America in the context of Emerging Markets, and IT sales and partnering strategies, among other topics.
He is frequently quoted in the Latin America media including the Wall Street Journal, America Economia, LatinTrade, and BNAmericas.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. Villate worked as a director for Fiduciaria Popular, a financial institution in Colombia, and in IBM Colombia.
Mr. Villate is a graduate from the Universidad Javeriana in Bogota, Colombia, with a degree in Industrial Engineering. He also holds a marketing degree from the University of California at Berkeley and an economics degree from the Universidad de los Andes in Bogota. While in the Colombian army, Mr. Villate lived in the Middle East. He is a native Spanish speaker.
Chief Research Officer
Meredith Whalen is IDC’s Chief Research Officer and member of the senior management team. She leads IDC's worldwide research organization, product management, marketing and client services functions. Ms. Whalen sets the direction and agenda for IDC's worldwide research products, fosters innovation, and ensures IDC clients have a valuable, personalized, and engaging experience.
Ms. Whalen’s international team of 1,100 analysts leverage research and advisory services to empower business transformation for the Global 2000, and counsel technology suppliers on creating effective offerings for the digital economy.
Ms. Whalen regularly presents at CIO and CXO summits in North America, EMEA, Asia Pacific and Latin America. She oversees the CIO Executive Council, which provides strategic leadership development for transforming the C-suite at the world’s most influential and evolving organizations.
Ms. Whalen was previously Senior Vice President of IT Executive, Industry, Software and Services Research & CIO Executive Council. In her 20 years at IDC, Ms. Whalen has innovated industry research practices with such offerings as the Industry Insights business units, advising vertical industry advising on technology strategy, and IDC's DecisionScape methodology, a portfolio of decision-making methodologies that enable professionals to better plan, deploy and optimize their technology initiatives. Ms. Whalen founded IDC's IT Executive Research programs and architected the industry's first and most comprehensive business use case taxonomy. She holds a B.A. with honors from Wellesley College and an M.B.A. with honors with from Babson's F.W. Olin Graduate School of Management.
Chief Operating Officer, Western Europe & GVP, IDC EMEA
As Chief Operating Officer of IDC Western Europe, Robert White is responsible for the Western Europe Country operations and the European Sales team. He is also responsible for the Finance function in IDC EMEA.
Mr. White joined IDC in 1992 as Financial Controller of IDC UK. He was appointed IDC European Finance director in 1997 and later took on responsibility for managing other European support functions.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. White held a number of accounting positions within different manufacturing companies and later joined Groupe Bull, where he served as business manager from 1989 until he joined IDC in 1992.
Mr. White graduated from the University of York with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics.
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